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- Osteoporosis - ACOG
That isn't an excuse to roast in the sun, though. Weight-bearing exercise is essential for building bones. And, according to the National Osteoporosis Society, research shows that just 15 skips a day can make a significant difference. Meanwhile, Dr Joan Bassey, a physiologist at the University of Nottingham Medical School, has found that taking stairs instead of a lift also helps: running upstairs provides on average 20 beneficial, high-impact jolts to the spine and hips; repeated five times a day, and the jolts will protect your skeleton.
Dancers, gymnasts, long-distance runners and people with anorexia or bulimia nervosa are all known to be at greater risk of osteoporosis than the general population. Because their low body fat levels and often inadequate nutrient intake leaves them vulnerable to weak bones. The same goes for yo-yo dieters and excessive exercisers.
Why my bones are crumbling at 27
In women, amenorrhea the cessation of periods is a warning sign that levels of the hormone oestrogen have plummeted to those of a postmenopausal woman. Since oestrogen is vital for the development of bone, it can mean a woman may start losing bone mass, putting her at risk of osteoporosis. Some researchers have linked a high caffeine consumption more than six cups of coffee a day with the leeching of calcium from bones. One recent American study at the Creighton University Osteoporosis Research Centre in Nebraska, published in the American Journal Of Clinical Nutrition, showed that people who drank cola and other caffeinated carbonated drinks tended to excrete calcium through their urine.
However, when researchers at the University of Cambridge looked at the diets of 1, elderly British women, they found that the tea drinkers had stronger bones than the non-tea drinkers. Reporting in the American Journal Of Clinical Nutrition a couple of years ago, they suggested it was the flavonoids plant chemicals that act as antioxidants in tea that were probably responsible for promoting bone density. Tea also contains fluoride, an important mineral for bone development.
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Dr Verona Hegarty, a gerontologist who led the study, said the number of cups of tea a day did not seem to play a role, but that women who added milk to their tea had much higher bone mineral density in the hip area. Drinking large amounts of fizzy drinks may weaken your bones, according to researchers at Denmark's Centre for Advanced Food Studies reporting in the journal Osteoporosis last year. National nutrition surveys show that many people consume less than half the amount of calcium recommended to build and maintain healthy bones.
Food sources of calcium include low-fat dairy products, such as milk, yogurt, cheese, and ice cream; dark green, leafy vegetables, such as broccoli, collard greens, bok choy, and spinach; sardines and salmon with bones; tofu; almonds; and foods fortified with calcium, such as orange juice, cereals, and breads. Depending on how much calcium you get each day from food, you may need to take a calcium supplement.
Postmenopausal women and older men also need to consume more calcium. Also, as you age, your body becomes less efficient at absorbing calcium and other nutrients. Older adults also are more likely to have chronic medical problems and to use medications that may impair calcium absorption. Vitamin D: Vitamin D plays an important role in calcium absorption and bone health. Food sources of vitamin D include egg yolks, saltwater fish, and liver. Many people obtain enough vitamin D naturally; however, studies show that vitamin D production decreases in older adults, in people who are housebound, and for people in general during the winter.
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Men and women over age 70 should increase their uptake to IU daily. Exercise: Like muscle, bone is living tissue that responds to exercise by becoming stronger. Weight-bearing and resistence exercises are the best for your bones. Examples of weight-bearing exercises include walking, hiking, jogging, climbing stairs, playing tennis, and dancing. Resistance exercises include lifting weights and using weight training machines. Smoking: Smoking is bad for your bones as well as your heart and lungs. Women who smoke have lower levels of estrogen compared with nonsmokers, and they often go through menopause earlier.
Menopause & Osteoporosis
Smokers also may absorb less calcium from their diets. Alcohol: Regular consumption of 2 to 3 ounces a day of alcohol may be damaging to the skeleton, even in young women and men. Those who drink heavily are more prone to bone loss and fracture, because of both poor nutrition and increased risk of falling. Medications that cause bone loss: Several medications can contribute to bone loss. Bone loss also can result from long-term treatment with certain antiseizure drugs, such as phenytoin 1 and barbiturates; gonadotropin-releasing hormone GnRH drugs used to treat endometriosis; excessive use of aluminum-containing antacids; certain cancer treatments; and excessive thyroid hormone.
It is important to discuss the use of these drugs with your doctor and not to stop or change your medication dose on your own. Some medicines and side effects are mentioned in this publication. Some side effects may be more severe than others.
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You should review the package insert that comes with your medicine and ask your health care provider or pharmacist if you have any questions about the possible side effects. Osteoporosis is often called a silent disease because bone loss occurs without symptoms.
People may not know that they have osteoporosis until their bones become so weak that a sudden strain, bump, or fall causes a hip to fracture or a vertebra to collapse. Collapsed vertebrae may initially be felt or seen in the form of severe back pain, loss of height, or spinal deformities such as kyphosis severely stooped posture.
Following a comprehensive medical assessment, your doctor may recommend that you have your bone mass measured.
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A bone mineral density BMD test is an important measure of your bone health. BMD tests can identify osteoporosis, determine your risk for fractures broken bones , and measure your response to osteoporosis treatment. It is painless — a bit like having an x-ray, but with much less exposure to radiation. It can measure bone density at your hip and spine.
Osteoporosis - ACOG
BMD tests can:. A comprehensive osteoporosis treatment program includes a focus on proper nutrition, exercise, and safety issues to prevent falls that may result in fractures. In addition, your doctor may prescribe a medication to slow or stop bone loss, increase bone density, and reduce fracture risk. Nutrition: The foods we eat contain a variety of vitamins, minerals, and other important nutrients that help keep our bodies healthy. All of these nutrients are needed in balanced proportion.
In particular, calcium and vitamin D are needed for strong bones and for your heart, muscles, and nerves to function properly. Exercise: Exercise is an important component of an osteoporosis prevention and treatment program.
Exercise not only improves your bone health, but it increases muscle strength, coordination, and balance, and leads to better overall health. Although exercise is good for someone with osteoporosis, it should not put any sudden or excessive strain on your bones. As extra insurance against fractures, your doctor can recommend specific exercises to strengthen and support your back. Preventing falls is a special concern for men and women with osteoporosis. Falls can increase the likelihood of fracturing a bone in the hip, wrist, spine, or other part of the skeleton.
In addition to the environmental factors listed below, falls can also be caused by impaired vision or balance, chronic diseases that affect mental or physical functioning, and certain medications, such as sedatives and antidepressants. It is important that individuals with osteoporosis be aware of any physical changes that affect their balance or gait, and that they discuss these changes with their health care provider. Here are some tips to help eliminate the environmental factors that lead to falls.
This publication contains information about medications used to treat the health condition discussed here. When this publication was developed, we included the most up-to-date accurate information available. Occasionally, new information on medication is released. Would you like to order publications on bone disorders to be mailed to you? Visit our online order form. Osteoporosis Overview. What is bone? Risk factors you cannot change: Sex. Your chances of developing osteoporosis are greater if you are a woman. Women have less bone tissue and lose bone faster than men because of the changes that happen with menopause.
The older you are, the greater your risk of osteoporosis. Your bones become thinner and weaker as you age. Body size. Small, thin-boned women are at greater risk.